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Nutritional Assessment of Basil Seed and its Utilization in Development of Value Added Beverage


Nutritional Assessment
of Basil Seed and its Utilization in Development of Value Added Beverage

Basil
seeds are used not only as pharmaceutical plant but also for culinary purpose.
The current study has been undertaken to develop a nutritious, healthy and
value added drink. Proximate, mineral analysis, total polyphenol content and
mineral analysis of basil seeds was conducted. Result revealed that basil seeds
are not only good source of fiber and protein but they provide appreciable
amount of minerals and phenolic compounds. Swollen basil seeds were used to
prepare beverage at three supplementation levels i.e. 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4%.
Sensory evaluation of basil seed drink revealed that 0.3% basil seeds supplemented drink was liked most
in term of taste, texture and over all acceptability whereas 0.4% basil seeds
supplemented drink were least liked as compared to other treatments. It was
concluded that basil seed could be supplemented in different food products for
the preparation of value added, healthy and nutritious diets.

Masooma Munir1,2*, Aqsa Qayyum1, Saeeda Raza1, Nouman Rashid Siddiqui1, Amer Mumtaz1, Naeem Safdar1, Sahar Shible1, Sohaib Afzal3, Saiqa Bashir4

1Food Science and Product Development Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan; 2Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan; 3Institute of Agricultural Sciences, University of Punjab, Pakistan; 4Department of Food science and Technology, University of Poonch, Rawalakot, Pakistan.

Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is native
plant of tropical regions. It belongs to genus Ocimum which comprises between 50 and 150 species of herbs and
shrubs (Paton et al., 1999).
It is one of endemic plant which is used not only as pharmaceutical plant but
also used as culinary herb (Naghibi et al., 2005). Seeds of basil
have been used as traditional medicine for treatment of dyspepsia, ulcer,
diarrhea and other illness. Many parts of Asia basil seeds are used to prepare
traditional beverages (sharbat) and many ice desserts like falooda (Hosseini-Parvar et al., 2010). Basil seeds
are used as diuretic, antipyretic, antispasmodic and stomachic (Alcicek et al., 2004). Basil seeds are
black in color and with oval shape and are good source of fiber. When seeds of
basil are soaked in water they swell up and produce gelatinous mass because
poly saccharide layer is present on outer epidermis wall of seed (Azoma and
Sakamoto, 2003
). Two major fractions of poly saccharides has been
reported from basil seeds, glucomannan (43%) and (1-4)-linked xylan (24.29%)
and a minor fraction of glucan (2.31%) (Hosseini Parvar et al., 2010). Suitability of basil seed gum in model system has
been reported recently (Bahram-Parvar and
Razavi, 2012
).

Recent epidemiological
studies have strongly suggested that consumption of certain plant materials
such as seeds, leaves, fruits and roots may reduce the risk of chronic diseases
related to oxidative stress on account of their antioxidant activity and
promote general health benefits (Ramarathnam et
al., 1995
). Phenolic compounds present in plant parts have been
reported to have multiple biological effects such as antioxidant activity,
antimutagenic, antitumor and antibacterial properties (Pietta et
al. 1998
). Essential oil extracted from basil leaves and seeds
have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Physical and chemical
composition of indian and Iranian basil seeds has been reported by Mathews et al.
(1993)
 and Razavi et al.
(2009)
. Basil seeds were used as thickening and stabilizing agent
because of their high polysaccharide contents or these were usually processed
into essential oil products in many studies (Rafe et al., 2012)
while information about phenolic profile of basil seeds is limited. So phenolic
content estimation of basil seeds is necessary to find relation of basil seed
with health promoting functions, as antioxidant capacity of phenolic compounds
protect the cell from free radicals which cause damage (Zhang et al., 2013).

In recent years, due to
busy life styles peoples diet demand and pattern has been changed. They tend to
consume delicious, readily available and affordable foods. Intake of such foods
many diseases have been found in new generation due to low fiber intake and
less nutritious components (antioxidant and minerals) in ready made food
products (NHMRC, 2006).
Food scientists and technologists are doing efforts to develop nutritious and
healthy foods with suitable sensory characteristics. Until now many research
and studies have been conducted on enrichment, supplementation and value
addition of food products such as bakery, dairy and beverages (Alqahtani et al., 2014Caleja et al., 2015Hajmohammadi et al., 2016Paquet et al., 2014Pentikainen et
al., 2014
). Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is used in most of beverage
as stabilizer and it is obtained from drying the stem exudates of Asiatic
species of alkali-cellulose. This hydrocolloid is suitable as stabilizers due
to its some properties such as high viscosity at low concentration, good
suspension and low cost (Arinaitwe and
Pawlik, 2014
).

Beverage is an excellent
media to intake nutrients inside body, because it is consumed all over the world
to quench thrust and to meet water requirement of body. This study was designed
to assess the nutritional composition of basil seeds and their utilization in
beverages so that nutritional requirement of consumers can be met by economical
way. Basil seeds are easily available and cheaper source of micronutrients.

Present research project
was conducted at Food Science and Product Development Institute, National
Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad. Raw materials such as basil seeds,
sugar, lemons, CMC and Citric acid were purchased from the local market of
Islamabad. Chemicals for analysis were purchased from Sigma Aldrich (Seelze,
Germany) and Lab-Scan (Dublin, Ireland) available in the local market.

Proximate composition
such as moisture, ash, crude fat, crude protein and crude fiber of basil seeds
was determined according to the procedures given in AOAC (2000).
For moisture determination samples were dried in oven at 130ºC for 60 minutes.
For ash determination samples were placed in muffled furnace at 550ºC to burn
out all carbon compounds leaving in organic part (ash). Fat was determined by
fat extraction unit by using n. Hexane. For fiber determination, samples were
treated with 1.25% Sulphuric acid and Sodium Hydroxide solution. After
filtration of digested material it was washed with hot water and then ignited.
By calculating loss of weight after ignition, crude fiber contents were
determined. Protein contents were determined by using kjeldhal unit.

Total phenolic contents
were measured by using Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method (Singleton et al.,
1999
) spectrophotometrically with some modifications. Extraction of
sample (5g basil seeds) was carried out by using ethanol. One mL of 10% (v/v)
Folin–Ciocalteu reagent in distilled water was mixed with sample extract. After
6min, 2.0 mL of a20%sodium carbonate solution was added. The mixture was placed
at 30 ºC for 60 min. Absorbance was determined at 765nm. Gallic acid was used
as standard and the total phenol content was expressed as mg GAE/g of sample.

Mineral contents were
measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometric method according to method
given in AOAC (2000).
Sample was ashed at 550 ºC in furnace. Then digestion of dry ash was
carried out by adding 6M HCL and 0.1 MHNO3 at equal ratio. After dilution,
mineral contents were measured by using atomic absorption spectrophotometric
method.

Basil seeds were
purchased from local market and cleaned carefully to remove stones, stalks and
dust. Seed preparation was done by using modified method based on earlier
studies (Razavi et al.,
2009
). Seeds were soaked in water at 50ºC for 20 min with water/seed
ratio of 50:1. Frequent stirring was done. Then by using perforated container,
swollen seeds were separated.

For preparation of
hydrocolloid solution 2g CMC powder was dissolved in distilled water at 70ºC
for 2 hour with continuous stirring by magnetic hot plate. 1 litter water, 140
g sugar, 2 g salt, 2mL lemon extract, 1g sodium benzoate were mixed together to
prepare beverage for all treatments. Swollen basil seeds were added according
to treatment as shown in Table 1.
This mixture was pasteurized and hot filled in 250 mL bottles.

The pH was determined by
a digital pH meter, ºBrix was measured by Abbe refractometer and Titratable
acidity of the sample was determined according to the standard method of AOAC (1999).

Sensory evaluation of
basil seed drinks were evaluated for sensory characteristics such as color,
appearance, flavor, mouth feel and overall acceptability at 17±5ºC by expert
panel of 20 judges (12 females and 08 males) from NARC. The evaluation was done
in sensory evaluation laboratory by a panel with normal lights on 9-points
Hedonic Scale (Land and Shepherd,
1988
).

Results were
statistically analyzed by using analysis of variance technique (ANOVA). The
difference in means was evaluated by the Least Significant Design. This
analysis was done by using statistic 9.0 software (Analytical software,
Tallahassee, FL).

Proximate
composition of basil seeds

Proximate composition of
basil seeds in given in Table 2 Basil
seeds contain 9.19% moisture, 17.32% crude protein, 9.68% crude fat, 5.80% ash,
% fiber and % carbohydrates.

Results of the present
study are comparable with the work of Razavi et al. (2009) who reported that
the chemical composition of Indian basil seeds was differed with Iranian basil
seeds. They reported that the range of moisture content (5-9%), protein
(14-20%), fat (13-23%). ash (5-7%) and carbohydrates (47-63%) in Indian and
Iranian basil seeds. In Iranian basil seeds protein and fat contents were
significantly higher while moisture and ash contents were lower than Indian
seeds. Changes in proximate composition of the present study might be due to
change in soil chemistry, climate condition and different agricultural
practices (Mathews et al.,
1993
). Hajmohammadi et
al. (2016)
 also determined the chemical composition of basil
seeds who used swollen basil seeds for enrichment of fruit based beverage.

Table 1: Treatment
plan for 1 liter of beverage

Treatments Raw basil seed (g)
T1 2
T2 3
T3 4

T1= Beverage with
2g basil seeds; T2= Beverage with 3g basil seeds; T3= Beverage with
4g basil seeds

Table 2: Proximate
composition of Basil seeds (% wet basis)

Moisture 9.19±0.45
Protein 17.32±1.12
Fat 9.68±0.67
Fiber 7.11±0.39
Ash 5.80±0.11
Carbohydrates 50.9±0.35

Table 3: Total
phenols(mg GAE/g) and mineral contents (ppm)

Total phenols 63.78±1.75
Fe 22.74±1.01
Zn 15.81±0.93
Mg 315.53±2.15
Mn 10.11±0.87

Total phenol and
mineral contents of basil seeds

Total phenolic contents
in basil seeds are 63.78±1.75 mg GAE/g as shown in Table 3.
Standard calibration curve for total phenols has also been shown in Figure 1.
Our findings are different from previous findings of Shen et al. (2015),
which might be due to change in soil chemistry. Mineral contents of food have
nutritional importance as far as body physiology concerned. Deficiency of
micronutrient is prevailing around the world. High Mg contents may boost bone
development and strength also effective against heart stroke. Zinc has also
been linked with alleviating hyperglycemia in diabetics. Fe is important as
part of blood (Fallon and Enig,
2001
).

Mineral contents in
basil seeds have been reported in Table 3.
Basil seeds and leaves are good source of minerals. Mg contents were found in
high amount (315.53±2.15) as compared to other determined minerals. Agunbiade et al.
(2015)
 has reported mineral contents in basil seeds and
leaves. Mlitan et al.
(2014) 
also studied mineral contents of basil from Libya but
change in mineral concentration was observed between our and their findings
which might be due to varietal differences and soil chemistry.

ºBrix and acidity
of basil seed drink

Titratable acidity
and ºBrix of basil seed drinks have been shown in Table 4.
There was no significant change in ºBrix and acidity of beverage. These
results are in agreement with other previous studies (Jabbar et al.,
2014
Saeeduddin et al.,
2015
).

Table 4: ºBrix and
Acidity of beverage

Treatment (T) ºBrix Acidity
T1 12.9±0.09 0.168±0.01
T2 12.7±0.05 0.160±0.03
T3 12.5±0.07 0.155±0.01

T1= Beverage with
2g basil seeds; T2= Beverage with 3g basil seeds; T3= Beverage with
4g basil seeds

Sensory evaluation
of basil seed beverage

Effect of seed ratio on
sensory parameters (color, flavor, taste, texture and overall acceptability) of
drink is presented in Figure 2.
All treatment were in acceptable range but T2 secured high sensory scores
in term of color (7.63± 0.29), flavor (7.43±0.41) taste (7.50± 0.32) texture
(8.01± 0.45) and overall acceptability (8.11±0.37) followed by T1 and T3.
Reduction in desirability of taste flavor and texture with increase in seed
ratio was also reported by Hajmohammadi et al. (2016). It might be due to
decrease in total soluble solids of drink because seeds had previously swollen
in water and had amounts of water inside and between them.

Our findings revealed
that basil seeds are good source of micronutrients and have antioxidant
potential which is highly beneficial for human health. Swollen basil seeds in
beverage also showed good sensory scores (T2) in beverage which shows it would
be acceptable by consumers too. Therefore, further studies should be conducted
about polyphenol composition and vitamins to better understanding of
nutritional importance of basil seed.

The present study was
supported by the Food Science and Product Development Institute, National
Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Pakistan.

Authors’
Contributions

Masooma Munir and Aqsa
Qayyum: Executed research plan

Amer Mumtaz and Nouman
Siddiqui: They have participated in research analysis

Naeem Safdar: wrote
abstract

Saeeda Raza: reviewed
the manuscript.

Sahar Shibbli and Saiqa
Bashir: Helped in drafting the manuscript

Sohaib Afzal: Statistical
analysis

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